JUL 23 191
UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA.
CAMDEN THIRD SERIES
OFFICES OF THE SOCIETY
6 & 7 SOUTH SQUARE
TWO LONDON CHRONICLES, FROM THE COLLECTIONS
OF JOHN STOW. EDITED BY C. L. KINGSFORD, M.A.,
F.S.A., F.R.HiST.S iij
LIFE OF SIR JOHN DIGBY (1605-1645). EDITED BY
GEORGES BERNARD, L.ES-L 61
ITER BELLICOSUM: ADAM WHEELER HIS ACCOUNT OF
1685. EDITED BY H. E. MALDEN, M.A., HON. FELLOW
OF TRINITY HALL, CAMBRIDGE, V.-P. AND HON. SEC.
COMMON RIGHTS AT COTTENHAM AND STRET-
HAM IN CAMBRIDGESHIRE. EDITED BY W.
CUNNINGHAM, D.D., F.B.A., PRESIDENT OF THE ROYAL
HISTORICAL SOCIETY AND ARCHDEACON OF ELY . . 169
HIS ACCOUNT OF 1685
EDITED FOR THE
ROYAL HISTORICAL SOCIETY
HENRY ELLIOT MALDEN, M.A.
HON. FELLOW OF TRINITY HALL CAMBRIDGE
VICE-PRESIDENT AND HONORARY SECRETARY
OF THE ROYAL HISTORICAL SOCIETY
OFFICES OF THE SOCIETY
6 & 7 SOUTH SQUARE
This MS., called on the outside " Adam Wheeler, His Account of
1685, " was found in Corhampton House, Bishop's Waltham,
Hampshire, by Mr. A. R. Maiden of Salisbury, M.A., Trinity Hall,
Cambridge. It has been put into the hands of the Society by the
kindness of the owner, Mrs. Campbell- Wyndham- Long. The
history of the writer has not been recovered. Adam Wheeler
occurs in the rate-book of St. Edmund's parish, Salisbury, in 1661,
but is more likely to be this Adam's father than himself. He was
a man of some education, who not only could write and spell but
could quote Virgil, Sic vos non vobis, and could compose two
very indifferent Latin elegiac couplets. Very possibly when not
drummer to the Wilts Militia he was a Schoolmaster. He seems
to have been rather specially attached to Colonel Wyndham, for
whom no doubt he wrote the account. This was John Wyndham,
of Norrington, M.P. for Salisbury in 1681 and 1685, father to
Thomas, created Lord Wyndham, Chief Justice of the Common
Pleas. His direct male line is extinct, but he was a relative of the
owner of the MS.
Evidently Wheeler put down some matters as they occurred ;
for instance his enumeration of the prisoners marched by his
regiment was made then and there upon the top of his drum. The
account was written up generally after the campaign. The dates
are wrong at the beginning. He starts on Wednesday, June 16th,
but June 16th in 1685 was a Tuesday. His days of the week are
more likely to be right than his days of the month. On what he
calls Saturday June 19th, really the 20th I believe, the regiment
marched from Salisbury to Wilton. They left Wilton in the
afternoon of what he calls Sunday the 20th. He does not mention
going to church in Wilton, probably they did ; at any rate he
would know that it was Sunday morning when they were there.
We may take it therefore that the Regiment was first called
together on Wednesday June 17th. On the previous Monday the
Lord Lieutenant, the Earl of Pembroke, had come to Salisbury, for
the Churchwardens' account of St. Thomas' shew 6/- for ringing
the bells for his arrival. Two days later is full short time for his
forces to be mobilised. On the day when they assembled Mon-
mouth, who had landed at Lyme on the llth, was at Ilminster.
On Saturday June 20th when they marched to Wilton, Monmouth
was at Taunton. The dates are wrong by a day till they came to
Frome on what he calls the 29th ; then 30 appears in the margin,
and on Wednesday July 1st they march from Frome to Shepton
Mallet, the dates henceforth being correct.
The general reasons for the marches appear fairly clear, if we
consider the movements of the enemy. On the afternoon of
June 21st and on June 22nd, they made long marches from Wilton
to Market Lavington, thence to Devizes and Chippenham. On the
23rd they went to Bath. Monmouth in these days was marching
from Taunton to Bridge water, Glastonbury and Shepton Mallet,
evidently aiming at Bristol, or at least a passage of the Avon.
Churchill had only a few regulars yet on the spot ; and the
Militia, though not highly trusted, might be necessary for want of
better troops. On the 24th Monmouth was at Pensford, and the
Militia marched to Bradford. Circumstances had altered. Fever-
sham was at Bath on the 24th, some cavalry had been pushed on
to Bristol, and the main force of the regulars was closing up.
They concentrated about Bath on the 26th. There was some
idea in Monmouth's army of a dash into Wiltshire as an alternative
to attacking Bristol, and at Bradford the Wilts Militia guarded
their own frontier, and the Royal Artillery which was still at
Devizes. l On the night of the 24th-25th there was u an alarum. "
There was no enemy ; but between Wheeler's lines I think we
may read that the regiment ran away in the dark. By reason of
u the alarum" they did not unite into a body till they came to
Trowbridge the next day. On the 26th the Earl of Pembroke
made a dash on Frome with some of his Militia, not Wheeler
himself, and came back with prisoners and scythes set on poles,
murderous weapons of which the drummer disapproved. On the
27th Monmouth beat off an attack under the Duke of Grafton at
Philip's Norton. The Wilts Militia were drawn up with other
troops in support, in case the rebels should attack in turn.
Monmouth however retreated, and the whole royalist force followed
The Militia were not actually under fire at Sedgemoor. They
seem to have turned out at " the alarum " more promptly and
steadily than the Bradford experience might have shown to be
probable, and were complimented on their smartness. They were
well commanded, and not allowed to break their ranks for plunder
after the battle. The prisoners were led by them to Weston
Zoyland Church, and were counted and described by Wheeler.
He says 228 in all, but he really counted 238. The Parish register
of Weston Zoyland gives another estimate of prisoners and of
losses. No doubt some prisoners were brought to the church
another way. This account is as follows : u An account of the
fight that was in Langmoor. a The ingagement began between
one and two of the clock in the morning. It was continued near
one hour and a half. Their was killed upon the spot of the
King's souldiers sixteen, and five of them buried in the church-
yard, and they all had Christian Buriall. One hundred or more
of the King's souldiers wounded, of which wounds many died ;
of which we have no certain account. Their was killed of the
rebels upon the spot about 300 ; hanged with us 22, of which 4
1 See Lord Wolseley's Life of Marlborough, vol. i, Ch. 37. But the reader
must observe that Lord Wolseley's dates are as muddled as Wheeler's.
1 The battle was on Langmoor, not on Sedgemoor properly so called.
weare hanged in gemmaces. About 500 prisoners brought into our
church ; of which there was 79 wounded, and 5 of them died of
their wounds in our church. "
Feversham writing to Sunderland, directly after the battle, says
that he lost not 50 killed and about 200 wounded. l Of Officers
and men 208 survivors were compensated for wounds in the
campaign. 2 The Wilts Militia lost two men in the campaign, by
accidents. The bells of St. Thomas' Salisbury were rung, at a
cost of five shillings, "when Colonel Wyndham came home from the
Army, " and no doubt Wheeler shared his triumph.
H. E. M.
1 Hist., MSS. Comm., Ninth Report, p. 21.
2 Col. McKinnon, Origin and services of the Coldstream Guards.
An" j Jacobi Scdi, R>.
A PERFECT RELATION OF THE HEROICK
MARCH OF HIS MAT ies TRUELY LOYALL SUBJECT
AND MAGNANIMOUS SOULDIER COLONELL JOHN
W1NDHAM ESQRE. WITH HIS REGIMENT OF FOOTE
INTO THE WESTERN PARTS OF ENGLAND FOR
THE SUPPRESSING OF JAMES SCOT AND HIS
ACCOMPLICES IN THEIRE REBELLIOUS
INSURRECTION. TOGETHER WITH
SOME REMARKABLE OCCUR-
RENCES HAPPENING IN
Faithfully set down by Adam Wheeler
one of the Drums of his Hono rs , owne Company.
An Chrs" 1685.
Being Wednesday f I was summoned by a Coinand from his 1685.
Honor to appeare in the Market- Place of New Sarm in the June 16.
County of Wilts by eight of the Clocke in the Morning in his
Regiment compleatly armed according to my place as a Drum.
Where the Regiment being drawne together was dischardged till
the next Morning. When againe met, being the Seventeenth day.
They were dischardged untill Fryday the eighteenth of June ; and
ye nineteenth being Saturday ; * The Regiment was exactly com-
1 June i6th was Tuesday.
* Saturday was June 2oth.
160 ITER BELLICOSUM
pleated by his Honor and accomodated fitt for Warre according to
Military Discipline, and that day by his Cofnand, about sixe of the
clock in the Evening, the Drums beating and the Colours displayed,
leaveing the Citty wee directed cure March to Wilton, beinge
about Two Miles distant and Quartered there that night; where his
Hono r ordered his Carridge and Amunicon to be brought to him.
June 20. The next day being Sunday ! on w cb day in the Afternoone
leaveing the Towne of Wilkton (sic), we continewed oure March
to Market Lavington.
June 21. Early the next morning his Hono r marched to the Devizes, and
there refreshed his Regim 1 for the Weary and hard Afternoones
March they sustained the day before.
In the Afternoone by Beate of Drum the Regim 1 marched as
farre as Chippenham and June the 22, being Tuesday, * They
marched from Chippenham to the Citty of Bath, where They
Quartered that night.
June 23. The Regim 1 leaveing the Citty of Bath went as farre as Brad-
forde. That Night being very darke there was an Alarum. By
reason of which the Regim 1 could not unite into a Body till
They came to Trowbridge, w ch was
June 24. Where, for the better security of his Hono ra Carridge, I desired
some assistance being Resolued to hazzard my Life by Ball or
Sword, rather than loose any part thereof here the whole Regim 1
June 25. The Rt. Hon rblc the L d Lieuten* Earle of Pembrook gave Comand
for some of the Regim 1 and some of the Militia Horse to goe w th
him to Froome, Where he forced the Rebells to lay downe theire
Armes, and brought away with him the Constable of that Towne
to Trowbridge who proclaymed the Duke of Monmouth King, and
severall cruell and New invented murthering Weapons as Sithes
and ye like.
1 Probably Sunday June 2ist.
* Tuesday was June 23rd.
Here There was One of the Colonells Regim 1 belonging to
Lieuten* Colon 11 Yong accidentaly hurt by discharclgeing a Mus-
quett which rent his hand in peeces, and soe became the Occasion
of his Death, for he liued not many daies after.
We continued our march from Trowbridge to Kingsdowne, June 26.
where divers other Regim t9 met here his Hono rs Regim 1 was by his
Grace the Duke of Graf ton and the R th Hon rble the Earle of
Feversham set in Batalia, as if presently to engage the Enemy.
Thence we marched to Bath.
From Bath the Regim 1 was led by his Honor Col 11 Windham June 27.
to Trowbridge, Where They made noe stay but Marched for-
wards into Bratton Lane, and there by an Alarum of the Enemies
being neere caused the Regim 1 to incampe in that Landsend,
and the Blew Regim* alsoe, and the yellow Hampshire Regim*
encamped in a ground neere the said Lane.
The Regim* marched into Bratton Fields, and was there drawn June 28.
up, and after some small stay moved to Westbury. and thence
directed its March neere to Froome ; Where his Hono rs Tent was
erected, and wee encamped there in a certaine Ground neere the
Dislodging from thence, wee marched directly into Froome ; June 2 9.
Where the Kings Matt" Gracious Pardon was proclaimed to all
such as had taken up Armes against him, if in 8 daies They 39.
would come in and accept thereof. Some Persons onely excepted,
who were therein mentioned.
Being Wednesday * his Hono r8 Regim 1 tooke theire March to July 1.
Shepton Mallet ; Here not farre from the Towne, a Ground was
shewne which lay within Prospect, where Monmouth and his Army
was drawne up and exercised. '
1 Correct date.
3 Monmouth was that day retreating to Wells. It means where his army had
been drawn up, not that it was then there. But the armies had come very close
together on July I, 2, and if Churchill had been in command Sedgemoor would
have been anticipated by four days.
July 2. Being Thursday we marched from Shepton Mallet to Glasten-
bury, and from thence wee removed and went towards Sumerton.
In which March wee had the sight of Kings Sedgemoore being
about One Mile distant from us ; And here Wee received a
Cofnand to Returne and March back to Charleton.
July 4. From whence wee Marched to Kings Sedgemoore, marching Eight
Miles in the Moore soe farre as Middlesey; Where being Alarumed;
July 6. The Rh l Honor ble The Earle of Pembrooke Lord Lieuten 1 in
great hast came rideing to the house where his Hono r Colon"
Windham was quartered, it being betweene Twelve and One
of the Clock in the Mornening, calling out Colon 1 Windham
Colon 11 Windham the Enemy is Engadged, and askeinge for his
Drums ; The Colon 11 * answer was that he was ready, and soe
forthwith prepared himselfe.
There being then noe Drum in the house but Adam Wheeler,
who opened the doore and answered his LorshP that he was ready
to obey his Cofnand ; Soe his Lor p immediately comanded him to
beate an Alarum, w eh he presently performed.
(Although some of the Regim 1 did endeavor to have the Credite
of that peece of Service ascribed to Themselves ; One saying it
was I that did first beate the Alarme ; Another in like manner
saying the same, soe that Wheeler may iustly complaine as the
Poet Virgil did concerneing his, Sic vos non vobis, and somewhat
after The same manner as he spoke, superscribe, Hos Ego Versi-
culos feci tulit alter honores.)
When the Alarum was beaten by Adam Wheeler in Middlesey
according to the Lord Lieuten 18 Coinand ; The Regim 1 marched
through Weston into Weston Moore with as much expedieon as
possible could be, where They were drawne up Three deep in
order to engadge if Occasion required.
The Aforesaid Sixth of July, the Fight began very early in the
morneing which Battell was over within the space of Two Howers,
and the Enemy received a totall Rowte.
Here Adam Wheeler (being then at his Post) was one of those
of the Right Wing of his hono r Colon 11 Windham's Regim 1 who
after the Enemy began to run desired Leave of his Hono r to get
such Pillage in the feild as they could finde ; But his Hono rs
Answer and Comand was ; That uppon Paine of Death not a Man of
his Regim 1 should move from his Post saying ; That if the Enemy
should rally together againe, and the Regim 1 be in disorder, every
man of them might loose- his Life.
The Battell being over the Right Honor ble the Earle of Feversham,
Generall of his Matie 8 Army, came to the Head of Collon lls Wind-
hams Regim 1 and gave him many Thanks for his ready nesse, Saying,
his Matie should not hear of it by Letter, but by Word of Mouth ;
and that he would certfy the Kinge himself of it.
An Account of the Prisoners that were brought along by the Right
Wing of his Hono r Colon 11 Windhams Regim 1 to Weston Church as
they were tyed together : Adam Wheeler writeing them downe on
his Drumhead as they passed by.
The first Number was Fifty and five, most of them tyed to-
The Second Number was thirty and two tyed in like manner.
The Third was Two wounded in theire Legs, crawling uppon
the Ground on theire Hands and Knees to Weston Church.
The Fowerth was Thirty seven in number, many of them tyed
and pinnackled together.
The Fifth was One alone being naked, onely his Drawers on.
The Sixth was One Single one more.
The Seventh was One more running, being forced along by Two
Horse Men with Blowes, and rideing close after him.
The Eighth Number was Fowerteene most of them being tyed
The Nineth was Forty Seven most of them tyed as the former,
such of Them as had a good Coate or any thinge worth the Pilling,
were very fairely stript of it.
The Tenth Number was Eight tyed by Two together Arme to
The Eleventh was, Twelve tyed and pinnackled.
The Twelfth was Seventeene tyed and pinnackled as the former.
The Thirteenth One more.
The Fowerteenth in Number were Seven more.
The Fifteenth, One more.
The Sixteenth, One more.
The Seventeenth was One more, Hee was very remarkeable and
to be admired, for being shot thorow the shoulder and wounded
in the Belly ; Hee lay on his Backe in the Sun stript naked, for the
space of Tenne or Eleven Howers, in that scorching hot day to the
Admiration of all the Spectatours ; And as he lay, a greate Crowde
of Souldiers came about him, and reproached him, calling him,
Thou Monniouth Dog How long have you beene with youre Kinge
Monmouth ? His answer was, that if he had Breath, he would tell
them : Afterwards he was pittyed, and they opened round about
him, and gave him more Liberty of the Aire, and there was One
Souldier that gave him a paire of Drawers to cover his Naked-
nesse : Afterwards haveing a long Stick in his hand he walked
feably to Weston Church, where he died that Night, and two
wounded men more.
The Number of the Prisoners that were led by the Right Wing of
his Hono r9 Regiment did amount to 228. l
The Country men that gathered up the Dead slayne in this
Battell gave an Account of the Minister and Church Wardens of
Weston of the Number of One Thousand Three hundred Eighty
and Fower ; Besides many more they did beleeve lay dead unfound
in the Corne.
Where Adam Wheeler saw of dead Men lying in One Heape One
Hundred Seventy and Fower ; which those that were digging a Pit
to lay them in gave the Number of. *
From Weston Moore the Regim 1 marched to Weston, and
thence to Middlesey, and from Middlesey againe to Weston, and
thence to Weston Moore : Where a Dutch Gunner, and a Yellow-
1 The total is in fact 238
1 There used to be a mound, now levelled, near what had been the left wing
of Monmouth's army, where the men were buried.
coate Souldier that ran out of his Matte 5 Army to Monmouth were
hanged on a Tree in Weston Moore not farre from the Church.
This Day Adam Wheeler went into the Campe and tooke an
Account as neere as hee could of his Matie 3 Carridges and Great
Guns where were neere One Hundred and forty of them : Of these
there were nineteene Guns some haveing sixe Horses. Some seven,
and some eight Horses a peece to draw them.
Here his Hono r Coll 1 Windham received Orders to Guard his
Matie 8 Guns and Carridges with his Regim 1 : from Weston Moore
to the Devizes, it being a peece of service of noe small Trust and
Credite, and soe much his Hono r was pleasd to informe his
This Afternoone an Accident fell out to be lamented : One of
His Hono rs owne Souldiers, being in Exercise, and quitting his
Armes, A musquett went off as it lay on the Ground, and shot him
thorow both of his legs, soe he died in a short time after.
From the Camp in Weston Moore his Hono r Coll 1 Windham
marched with his Regim* to Glastenbury : Heere at the signe
of the White Hart a Duell was fought betweene Captaine Love
and Major Talbot. The Major fell, and Captain Love fled for it.
Heare alsoe were sixe men of the Prisoners that were taken
hanged on the Signe Post of that Inne, who after as They hung
were stripped naked, and soe left hanging there all night.
Here Alsoe at this towne of Glastenbury there was an Alarm,
where uppon the Regim 1 was comanded to the Abby Cloyster.
His Hono rB Regim 1 Marched from Glastenbury (where those sixe
men were left hanging on the Signe- Post) to Wells ; Thence they
marched to Embetch and soe to Philips Norton.
The Regim 1 left Philips Norton, and Marched to the Devizes
(guarding his Mati 68 Carriages and Guns where his Hono r was
dischardged of that Trust And here his Hono r dischardged the j u iy g.
Regim 1 likewise, till the next Summons by Beate of Drum.
July 9. This is the best account I can give yo r Hono r of that successfull
March : and doe humbly beg yo r Hono r9 pardon for this Presump-
tion, and with leave subscribe my selfe Sir,
Yo r Honors most dutifull Drum, and most humble and
Anglorum vivat semper Prolesque Jacobi,
Rex : fugiant Hostes non remorante pede.
Atque diu vivat stirps Nobilis inclyta Wyndham
Detque Deus pueris Gaudia Multa suis.
Bath, 154, 1 60, 161.
Bradford, 154, 155, 160.
Bratton Fields, 161.
Bratton Lane, 161.
Glastonbury, 154, 162, 165.
Grafton, Duke of, 155, 161.
Chippenham, 154, 160.
Churchill, Lord, 154, 161.
Devizes, 154, 155, 164, 165.
Feversham, Earl of, 154, 156, 161,
Frome, 154, 155, 160, 161.
Love, Capt, 165.
Market Lavington, 160.
Middlesey, 162, 164.
Monmouth, Duke of, 154, 160, 161.
New Sarum, 159.
Pembroke, Earl of, 154, 155, 160,
Philips Norton, 155, 165.
Prisoners, list of, 163, 164.
Salisbury, 154, 159.
Shepton Mallet, 154, 161, 162.
Talbot, Major, 165.
Weston Church, 163, 164.
Weston Moor, 162, 164, 165.
Weston Zoyland, 155, 162.
Wheeler, Adam, 153, 162, 163,
Wilton, 154, 160.
Wyndham, Colonel, 153, 156, 161,
162, 163, 165.
Wyndham, Lord, 153.
Yong, Colonel, 161.
COMMON RIGHTS AT
COTTENHAM ftf STRETHAM